Haglund's deformity is a seldom-heard term for a prominent bone at the posterior (back) of the heel bone. The bump created by the prominent bone often results in an irritated, red area that flares up occasionally, causing localized pain and swelling on the heel. A Haglund's deformity is also called a pump bump, because the condition often occurs in women and is aggravated by certain shoe styles, such as pumps or high heels.
The bone where a pump bump occurs is the calcaneus, or heel bone. A pump bump is usually due to an abnormality in foot function or bone position, which creates shoe friction around the natural bone prominence at the back of the calcaneus. Genetics may also predispose people to the condition, which results in skin irritation that leaves a characteristic red bump, and can be quite painful. Pain and swelling may be a sign of deeper inflammation, known as bursitis.
Bursitis is inflammation of a fluid-filled sac (bursa) which serves to cushion a tendon against bone. A common form of bursitis in the ankle area, known as retrocalcaneal bursitis, can sometimes occur with a pump bump. An inflamed bursa can also develop between the skin and the Achilles tendon, causing swelling and tenderness to the touch.
Constant friction at the back of the heel can also irritate skin, causing changes such as redness, thickening, and increased skin lines.
Haglund's deformity is sometimes associated with Achilles tendonitis. Symptoms of Achilles tendonitis, such as pain and swelling, usually occur a few centimeters above the area where the tendon attaches to the back of the heel. Over time, chronic injury to the Achilles tendon can cause it to weaken and break down, a condition known as tendonosis.
Treatment of Haglund's Deformity
When a pump bump becomes inflamed, the most important part of treatment is to reduce pressure and friction at the site of the bump. The best way to do this is to ensure that you are wearing a shoe that fits well, and offers adequate support. Usually, shoes that are a bad fit are to blame. Some examples of how shoes can contribute to pain and irritation include:
Store-bought moleskin padding, or heel cups, can help by protecting the back of the heel from rubbing against the shoe. A store-bought arch support or custom-made foot orthotics can help to offset any foot biomechanical problems that contribute to a Haglund's deformity. These products also help to hold the foot more securely in the shoe, which keeps the foot from slipping around.
Podiatric care of Haglund's deformity may involve identifying any biomechanical problems that are causing the problem. If bursitis is present, treatment may include anti-inflammatory medications or a corticosteroid injection to ease inflammation. Heel lifts or orthotics may be recommended to reduce tension on the Achilles tendon. Padding of the heel and shoe recommendations may also be a part of the treatment plan.